Age Norms

Reference: Caring for your Baby and Young Child, Birth to Age 5, Shelov, American Academy Of Pediatrics

The information below provides you with general guidance for the developmental expectations in key areas for children from birth to age 5. The examples below are common actions and behaviours exhibited by children during their early years. Please remember that all children are different and they will develop skills at different times. It is not unusual for a child to be behind in some areas while being ahead in others. If you have any concerns about your child’s development, please speak with your doctor.

0-3 months (Recommended Apps: VINCI Music Videos & capturing precious moments with VINCI Tab)

Gross motor During this stage, children can roll from their front on to their back. While lying on their front, children at this age can push up and support their upper body with their arms, raise their head and chest, and stretch out and kick their legs. When supported in a standing position, children will push off the floor.
Fine motor During this stage, children are able to open and close their hands to grasp objects and shake hand toys such as a rattle. They can bring their hands to their mouth. Children at this age often reach out for objects dangled in front of them.
Social/Emotional During this stage, children smile at the sound of the familiar voices of their caregivers. They enjoy the sound of their own voice and begin to babble and to imitate a few sounds. They also begin to imitate some simple body movements and facial expressions.
Language
Cognitive During this stage, children tend to closely watch the faces of the people around them. They can closely follow moving objects. Children at this age are able to recognize familiar objects and the people they know.
Recommended Toys & activities
  • Images or books with high contrast patterns
  • Colorful mobiles
  • Unbreakable mirror
  • Rattles or similar hand toys
  • Singing to your baby
  • Listening to a variety of music
Recommended VINCI Products
  • Use the VINCI camera to record your precious moments together with your child.
  • Use the VINCI Diary to track your children’s important milestones and to compose their personal story book.

4-7 months (Recommended Apps: VINCI Music Videos, Story Books & capturing precious moments with VINCI Tab)

Gross motor During this stage, children are usually able to roll over from their front onto their back and from their back onto their front. They can sit unassisted. They can support their own weight with their legs. Children at this age gain control of their upper body and arms.
Fine motor During this stage, children can hold and shake a small hand toy and are able to pass it from one hand to the other. Children at this age are able to use their hands to explore an object.
Social/Emotional During this stage, children are able to reach out for a person they know. They enjoy looking at themselves in a mirror. Children at this age show a response to expressions of emotion by the people around them. They also begin to copy a few sounds of speech.
Language During this stage, children start to respond to their own name. They also begin to respond to the word “no”. They are able to distinguish emotions by the tone of voice. At this age, children often respond to sound by making their own sound. They are able to use their own voice to express joy and displeasure. Typically, their “babble” sounds are chains of consonants.
Cognitive During this stage, children are able to track a moving object with their eyes instead of moving their head. They can locate a familiar object that is partially hidden from view. At this age, children tend to explore objects with both their hands and mouth. They will make an effort to get to objects that are out of reach. They can look from one object to another and maintain eye contact with a falling object.
Recommended Toys & activities
  • Unbreakable mirror
  • Balls
  • Toys that make sounds or play music
  • Toys with handles or finger-holds
  • Toys that encourage hand-eye coordination
  • Pictures with bright images
  • Baby books
Recommended VINCI Products
  • Use the VINCI camera to record your precious moments together with your child.
  • Use the VINCI Diary to track your children’s important milestones and to compose their personal story book.

8-12 months (Recommended Apps: VINCI Explorations Game (explore mode), Music Videos, Story Books & capturing precious moments with VINCI Tab)

Gross motor During this stage, children are typically able to get themselves into a sitting position. They can crawl on their hands and knees, or “scoot around” using their legs while in a seated position. At this age, children can move from a sitting to a crawling or prone position and pull themselves up to a standing position. Often, children are able to take steps while holding onto furniture or an adult’s hands. They may be able to stand briefly without support or take a few unassisted steps. They also may be able to climb stairs with adult help.
Fine motor During this stage, children gain greater control of their hands and fingers. They can be expected to use their hands to feed themselves. They also develop the ability to put objects into a container and take them out again. They are able to purposely release objects, use their index finger to poke or push a toy, and scribble with a crayon. At this age, children are often able to begin drinking from a cup or use a spoon to eat.
Social/Emotional During this stage, children tend to be shy or anxious around strangers. They are often visibly upset when primary caregivers leave the room. Children at this age often have favorite toys. They can begin to test the acceptable limits of their actions and behaviours. They are able to assist with getting dressed by putting out an arm or leg when appropriate. They will often copy actions during play.
Language During this stage, children will come when called and respond to their own name. Early communication skills develop and they are usually able to say “mama” or “dada” with at least one other word. They are able to communicate a need or desire without crying and stop an action if they are told “no”.
Cognitive During this stage, children tend to explore objects in different ways often by shaking, banging, throwing, or dropping them. They know the names of familiar objects and respond to music. At this age, children begin to explore the relationship between cause and effect.
Recommended Toys & activities
  • Toys that encourage hand-eye coordination
  • Toys that develop finger dexterity
  • Toys that foster a sense of competence and ability
  • Have books read to them every day
Recommended VINCI Products
  • Use the VINCI camera to record your precious moments together with your child.
  • Use the VINCI Diary to track your children’s important milestones and to compose their personal story book.

13-18 months (Recommended Apps: VINCI Explorations Game (explore mode), Music Videos, Story Books & capturing precious moments with VINCI Tab)

Gross motor During this stage, children are typically able to climb into chairs without assistance. They begin to walk independently and are able to climb stairs in a standing position with the help of an adult.
Fine motor During this stage, children are able to construct a three-block tower. They can use a spoon well and drink easily from a cup. Children at this age can flip the pages of a board-style book, often a few pages at a time. They are also able to turn over a container and pour out the contents.
Social/Emotional During this stage, children are often able to remove some of their clothing on their own. They can point to body parts and other familiar objects when asked. They are also capable of helping out with simple tasks.
Language During this stage, many children have a five to ten word vocabulary and are able to follow a simple instruction.
Cognitive During this stage, children are able to find objects hidden under two or three layers or coverings. They are also able to use objects as tools.
Recommended Toys & activities
  • Toys that encourage hand-eye coordination
  • Toys that promote fine motor skills
  • Toys that allow discovery of self
Recommended VINCI Products
  • Use the VINCI camera to record your precious moments together with your child.
  • Use the VINCI Diary to track your children’s important milestones and to compose their personal story book.

19-24 months (Recommended Apps: complete library of VINCI content including games, story books and music videos)

Gross motor During this stage, children can often carry or drag a toy while walking. They can carry a large toy or multiple small toys. They begin to run and kick. Many children at this age can throw a ball. They can climb into and out of chairs without assistance. They are able to walk up and down stairs, one stair at a time, with help.
Fine motor During this stage, children can build a tower of four blocks or more. They can complete a simple shape-matching puzzle and can easily turn the pages of a board-style book, one page at a time.
Social/Emotional During this stage, children often copy the behavior of adults and other children. They get excited about being with other children. They demonstrate an ability to play alongside other children. At this age, children begin to show increasing independence as well as some defiant behavior.
Language During this stage, children start to put up to four words together to make a simple sentence. They often will repeat words that they overhear.
Cognitive During this stage, children start sorting objects by shapes and colors. At this age, children often begin engaging in “make-believe” play.
Recommended Toys & activities
  • Toys that continue to encourage hand-eye coordination
  • Toys that promote fine motor skills
  • Toys that allow discovery of self
  • Toys that encourage imagination
  • Puzzles and books
  • Start developing concepts of quantity and time without being specific
Recommended VINCI Products
  • Use the VINCI Curriculum: L1 app package to build your child’s five core capabilities, including Thinking Skills; Emotional & Social Skills; Language & Literacy; Maths & Logical Reasoning; and General Knowledge.
  • E.g., Use the M24: Land & Sea app to initiate your child’s understanding of emotions.
  • Visit VINCI Kids Library to download even more learning apps.

24-36 months (Recommended Apps: complete library of VINCI content including games, story books and music videos)

Gross motor During this stage, children are often able to walk up and down stairs with alternating feet. They are able to run with ease and jump up and down, landing with both feet at the same time. Many children at this age can throw a ball with an overhand motion and pedal a tricycle.
Fine motor During this stage, children develop greater facility with their hands. While holding a pencil or crayon in a writing grip, they are able to make up-and-down, side-to-side and circular lines. They are also able to build a tower of seven or more blocks. Children at this age demonstrate an ability to open and close jars, thread and unthread large nuts and bolts, or string large beads. They can manipulate latches and hooks. They are able to cut paper with children’s scissors.
Social/Emotional During this stage, children tend to make claims of their own possessions. They often demonstrate a spontaneous affection for familiar playmates and begin to understand the concept of taking turns. At this age, children openly express a wide range of emotions including affection. They often will object to major changes in routine and anticipate daily activities. They are able to put their toys away.
Language During this stage, children are usually able to follow two and three step instructions or commands such as “sit down and eat your breakfast”. Children are able to recognize and identify most of the objects and pictures in their environment. They develop an understanding of the concept of “mine” vs. “someone else’s”. At this age, children are often able to speak in four to five word sentences. It is common for them to ask a lot of questions. They learn to ask for help. They know their full name, age and gender. When speaking, children use pronouns (e.g.: I, you, me, we, they) and some plural forms of words.
Cognitive During this stage, children are able to match a physical object in their hand or in the room to a picture in a book. They will often include animals, dolls and people in their make-believe play activities. At this age, many children can sort objects by shape and color with ease. They can complete simple puzzles with three to four pieces. They demonstrate an understanding of the concept of two. Children can name some body parts and colors. Some children at this age can recite numbers up to ten.
Recommended Toys & activities
  • Toys that encourage creative play, building and drawing
  • Talking and singing with the child
  • Reading books together every day (Choose books that encourage touching and pointing to objects)
  • Introduce musical instruments (Play calm and melodic music)
  • TV viewing should be limited
Recommended VINCI Products
  • Use the VINCI Curriculum: L1 & L2 app packages to build your child’s six core capabilities, including Thinking Skills; Emotional & Social Skills; Language & Literacy; Maths & Logical Reasoning; General Knowledge; and Science.
  • E.g., Use the M32: Hatch n’ Match app to help children discover the hidden rules by observing and thinking.
  • Visit VINCI Kids Library to download even more learning apps.

36-48 months (Recommended Apps: complete library of VINCI content including games, story books and music videos)

Gross motor During this stage, children are usually able to both hop and stand on one foot for up to four seconds. They can kick a ball forward and are able to catch a ball bounced to them.
Fine motor During this stage, children are often able to draw a person with two to four body parts. They can draw circles and squares. At this age, they can use children’s scissors to cut paper. They have the hand control to twiddle their thumbs or perform a finger-to-thumb sequence such as that used in the Itsy-Bitsy Spider song.
Social/Emotional During this stage, children tend to look forward to new experiences. They cooperate with other children. They will often engage in role-playing. At this age, children can be inventive and are capable of negotiating solutions to conflicts. Children begin to view themselves as a whole person that includes a body, a mind and feelings, but they often cannot distinguish fantasy from reality.
Language During this stage, children demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of “same” and “different”. Most children at this age have mastered the basic rules of grammar. They speak in sentences of five to six words. They can tell stories and speak clearly enough for strangers to understand.
Cognitive During this stage, most children can correctly name some colors and understand the purpose of counting. They begin to have a clearer sense of time. They are capable of knowing their home address. At this age, children are able to follow three-step instructions. They can recall parts of a story and invent and tell simple stories. They enjoy creating a rich fantasy world.
Recommended Toys & activities
  • Toys that encourage creative play, building and drawing
  • Talking and singing with the child
  • Reading books together every day (Choose books that encourage interaction and understanding)
  • TV viewing should be limited
Recommended VINCI Products
  • Use the VINCI Curriculum L2 & L3 app packages to build your child’s six core capabilities, including Thinking Skills; Emotional & Social Skills; Language & Literacy; Maths & Logical Reasoning; General Knowledge; and Science.
  • E.g., Use the M40: Day & Night app to teach your child about the concept of time.
  • Visit VINCI Kids Library to download even more learning apps.

49-60 months (Recommended Apps: complete library of VINCI content including games, story books and music videos)

Gross motor During this stage, children are usually capable of standing on one foot for ten seconds or more. They can hop around and do a somersault. Children at this age are comfortable on play structures and are able to swing and climb on their own. They may be able to skip.
Fine motor During this stage, children are comfortable using a pencil to copy shapes, draw a person with body parts, and print some letters.
Social/Emotional During this stage, children tend to want to please their friends. They often want to be like their friends. They are more likely to agree to and follow rules. Many children at this age like to sing, dance and act. They start to demonstrate independence such as visiting the next door neighbor on their own. They become more aware of their own bodies. They are able to distinguish between fantasy and reality. It is common for children at this age to be demanding at times yet cooperative at other times.
Language During this stage, early literacy skills develop as children begin to read some words independently. They speak longer, more complete sentences and tell stories. They incorporate the future tense when speaking.
Cognitive During this stage, most children can correctly name all major colors and can count to ten or more. They demonstrate an understanding of time, sequence, and the seasons. They also recognize the purpose or function of familiar objects such as money, food and household appliances.
Recommended Toys & activities
  • Toys that encourage creative play, building and drawing
  • Talking and singing with the child
  • Reading books together every day (Choose books that encourage interaction and understanding)
  • TV viewing should be limited
Recommended VINCI Products
  • Use the VINCI Curriculum L3 app package to build your child’s six core capabilities, including Thinking Skills; Emotional & Social Skills; Language & Literacy; Maths & Logical Reasoning; General Knowledge; and Science.
  • E.g., Use the M56: American Northeast app to teach your child about American History and Culture.
  • Visit VINCI Kids Library to download even more learning apps.